How the State of Israel Came to Be


Comment Blog


Zionism, Islamism and Arab Nationalism

Captain Alfred Dreyfus

Theodore Herzl

Baron Albert Rothschild and Baron Maurice de Hirsch

Count Gobineau, The Inequality of the Races

Eugen Dühring, The Jewish Question of Race, Morals and Civilization

Benjamin Disraeli

Leon Pinsker, Auto-Emancipation (1882)

Nathan Birmbaum:  Zionism (1886)

Herzl, Judenstaat. “the poor were to be removed by being denied work in the new Jewish state while being offered employment in ‘transit counties.’”

R. Ovendale.  Origins of Arab-Israeli Wars.1985.

Bernard Lewis

Joseph Chamberlain

Chaim Weizmann and Arthur James Balfour


Sunni, caliph successors of Mohammed

Shia, followers of son-in-law, Ali

Dome of the Rock, Al Azsa mosque, Mecca, Medina

Suljek Turks, Crusaders, Mameluke Egypt, Ottomans, Napoleon, British

Abdul Hamid II

Young Turk Nationalists

Arab Literary Club & Arab National Congress

General Liman von Sanders

Anglo-Persian Oil Company

Hussein Ibn Ali (Sherif of Mecca)

Ibn Saud

Lord Kitchener

Sykes-Picot Plan

T. E. Lawrence, of Arabia


Marcel Proust, Jean-Paul Sartre, Aleister Crawley

Prince Feisal

Balfour Declaration