First Vatican Council


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Crimean War


Count Camillo Cavour


Battles of Magenta and Solferino

Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Garibaldi and the Thousand Red Shirts

Battle of Mentana

First Vatican Council

Dei Filius

De Ecclesia

Lord Acton in England

Friedrick and Dllinger in Germany

Bishop Doupanloup in France

Cardinal Manning

Archbishop Kenrick

Pastor Aeternum

Otto von Bismarck

"La France a perdu ses dents"

San Martino

Law of Guarantees