Muslims and Magyars Make Mincemeat of Europe


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Cantabrian Mountains

Christian Asturia

Battle of Covadonga

Pelayo and the “reconquista

Governor Anbasa – Pyrennes, Carcassonne, Autun

Abd ar-Rahman I to Bordeaux, Shrine of St. Hilary, Shrine of St. Martin of Tours

Charles Martel

Battle of Tours

Southern Italy, Benevento, Campagna

Monte Argento

Musa ibn Nusair with tarik

Mount Tarik or Gebel Tarik

Gib ral tar

Visagoth King Roderick

Seville (773)

Caliphate of Córdova

River Douro

Pyrenees from Languedoc

Cantabrian Mountains (Asturia)

River Duoro

Guadarrama Mountains; River Ebro

River Tagus

Sierra Morena Mountains

Sierra Nevada

From Rhône to Arles


Saint Gall Monastery

St. Bernard Pass:  Brother Maieul of Cluny

William, count of Provençe

Alliance of Pisa, Genoa and Amalfi

Morovian Christian State on the Danube (906)

Diocese of Passau; province of Salzburg

King Stephen of Hungary; Pope Sylvester II; St. Gerard