The Germans


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Visagothic-Ostragothic Army
Battle of Adrianople & Emperor Valens
Civitates organized by bishops
Clovis: counties ruled by counts
Meroveck > Merovingians
Thuringians, Burgundians, Visagoths in Provence
Gallo-roman and Frankish
Gallo-roman: a society of responsibilities. A criminal is responsible for his crime; civil authorities are responsible to bring him to justice
Franks: the clan takes responsibility for both.
Compurgation, alone or with 'oath-helpers'
Trial by combat

"Mayors of the palace" Pepin of Landen
Charles Martel: Battle of Poitiers, 733
Pepin III and Pope Stephen II (752 A.D.)
Donation of Pepin (753-1870)
Carloman & Charles
Alcuin of York
"Carolingian Renaissance"
St. Leafwine
Saxon nobles at Verden
Emperor Constantine VI and Queen Mother Irene
Pope Hadrian I
Pope Leo III
Lombards, Spoleto, Benevento
Pascal and Campulus