Early Church History 37

Ambrose and Hilary:

The Continuing Arian Controversy

Greek fathers like the Cappadocians, Athanasius, John Chrysostom

Latin fathers like Ambrose, Augustine, Gregory I, Jerome, and Hilary


Origen, homo-oisians

bishop of Poitiers

Arianist Bishop Saturninus of Beziers

Council of Ancyra, Antioch, Sirmium

Four Camps on a continuum:

<Nicene homoousians>< homo-oisians><homo-eans><Arianists or Anomoeans>


Emperor Constantius and the synod of Seleucia, 359

Saint Jerome: "The whole world groaned and marveled to find itself Arian."

Creed of Rimini

Lucifer of Cagliari

Eusebius of Vercelli

Ambrose's home towns: Trier, Arles, Lyons

Ambrosius, Prefect of Gallia



Pope Liberius

Prefect Anicius Probus

Emperor Valentinian II, half brother to Emperor Gratian

Magnus Maximus

Governor of Liguria and Aemilia

"Go, conduct yourself less as a judge and more as a bishop."

374 Bishop Auxentius of Milan died

Bishop Dionysius

"cleri plebique"

"He learned that he might teach"

Valentinian and Justina fled to Thessalonica

Valentinian II murdered at Vienne by Arbogast

"that memorable year in which Church and State met as opposing powers and a righteous victory lay with the Church. In fact, he who would write of the affairs of state during the last years of the fourth century must ever go borrowing from the church historians; he dare not at his peril omit the figure of counsellor of Emperor after Emperor, the fearless, tyrannous, passionate and loving bishop of Milan.      -  Cambridge Medieval History


Theodosius I

Epistle 51:

The memory of your old friendship is pleasant to me, and I gratefully call to mind the kindnesses which, in reply to my frequent intercessions, you have most graciously conferred on others.  Whence it may be inferred that I did not from any ungrateful feeling avoid meeting you on your arrival, which I had always before earnestly desired.  and I will now briefly set forth the reason for my acting as I did....

Listen, august Emperor, I cannot deny that you have a real zeal for the faith; I do confess that you have the fear of God. But you have a natural vehemence, which, if any one endeavours to soothe, you quickly turn to mercy; if any one stirs it up, you rouse it so much more than you can scarcely restrain it. Would that if no one soothe it, at least no one may inflame it! To yourself I willingly entrust it, you restrain yourself, and overcome your natural vehemence by the love of piety...

There was that done in the city of the Thessalonians of which no similar record exists, which I was not able to prevent happening; which, indeed, I had before said would be most atrocious when I so often petitioned against it, and that which you yourself show by revoking it too late you consider to be grave, this I could not extenuate when done...

Bear it, then, without impatience, O Emperor, if it be said to you: "You have done that which was spoken of to King David by the prophet." For if you listen obediently to this, and say: "I have sinned against the Lord," if you repeat those words of the royal prophet: "O come let us worship and fall down before Him, and mourn before the Lord our God, Who made us," it shall be said to you also: "Since you repent, the Lord puts away your sin, and you shall not die."

I, indeed, though a debtor to your kindness, for which I cannot be ungrateful, that kindness which has surpassed that of many emperors, and has been equaled by one only; I, I say, have no cause for a charge of contumacy against you, but have cause for fear; I dare not offer the sacrifice if you intend to be present. It that which is not allowed by the blood of one innocent person, allowed after shedding the blood of many? I do not think so.

Eugenius and Arbogast

"Where is the God of Theodosius?"

Straight-line Wind

Theodosius the Great