Early Church History 9

Church Life at the Time of the Apostles

Furthermore, God has set up in the church first apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracle workers, healers, assistants, administrators and those who speak in tongues. 1 Corinthians 12: 28

Didache 11:3 apostle-prophets; 11:9 prophets; 15:1 bishops and deacons worthy of the Lord

Titus, Timothy, Linus, Cletus, Clement, John, Polycarp, Polycrates

deaconesses? Romans 16:1 I commend to you, Phoebe our sister, who is a minister of the church at Cechreae... Help her ... for she has been a benefactor to many and to me as well.

a sacramental role?  two facts say no:

Montanist movement rejected by the Church

Also Saint Paul: 1 Corinthians 14: 33 - 35 women should keep silent in the churches, for they are not allowed to speak...

Saint Ignatius of Antioch: Everyone whom the master of the house sends as a steward, we should receive as we would the one who sent him; it is obvious therefore that we should reverence the bishop as the Lord himself. Letter to the Ephesians, VI.

"monarchial" bishop

Rod Bennett, THE FOUR WITNESSES, 2002

Johannes Quasten, PATROLOGY, Volumes 1 through 4

Theophorus before the Emperor Trajan, 110

Ephesus, Magnesia, Tralles, Philadelphia, Smyrna, Polycarp, Rome.  "I fear that your love will cause me damage for I shall not have such another occasion to enter into the possession of God. I am the wheat of god, and I must be ground by the teeth of wild beasts, that I may become the pure bread of Christ." Letter to the Romans, 1.2;2.1;4.1)

Joseph Jungmann. MASS OF THE ROMAN RITE. 1950. "But the records of the Last Supper contain few details concerning the ceremonial of the meal, probably because this ceremonial was not meant to be a lasting setting for the celebration."

First Cup; Second Cup: How is this night different"

Third Cup: of Blessing.  "And likewise the cup after they had eaten saying this cup is the new covenant in my blood."


abuses 1 Corinthian 11:17 - 34

Hippolytus in Rome: Body of Christ, Blood of Christ, cups of milk and honey, and of water

Cock's crow on the First Day of the Week

Pliny the Younger to Trajan "stato die ante lucem"

"Dominus, vobiscum.  Et cum spiritu tuo"

reading from Old Testament

reading from letters, testimonies

Psalms and hymns

Blessing of Bread and Wine, Fracture.


"In saecula saeculorum. Amen"